|Name of Ju´s||Main Location||Annexed Gun´s||Annexed Hyeon´s|
As shown in Table 1 above, the area of Sakju, which had 12 counties and 26 prefectures in its jurisdiction, contained today's Hoengseong to the east, Gapyeong in Gyeonggi-do to the west, Yeongju of Gyeongsangbuk-do to the south, and Deogwon in Hamgyeongbuk-do. Its provincial capital was seated in today's Chuncheon. As for Myeongju, (with the capital was in today's Gangneung,,) the area contained nine counties and 25 prefectures bordered by the East Sea to the east, Yeonghae, Yeongdeok and Cheongsong in Gyeongsangbuk-do to the south, Pyeongchang and Jeongseon to the west, and Anbyeon in Hamgyeongnam-do to the north.
Therefore, Gangwon-do, under Unified Silla's nine-Ju system, contained the coastal areas to the east; the area linking Yeongdeok, Cheongsong, Yeongju and Punggi in Gyeongsangbuk-do to the south; Danyang and Jecheon in Chungcheongbuk-do; Wonju, Gapyeong and Cheorwon to the west and Deogwon, Anbyeon and Hoeyang in Hamgyeongnam-do to the north. This shows that Unified Silla's two provinces, Sakju and Myeongju, included in its jurisdiction not just today's Gangwon-do but some of Gyeongsangbuk-do, Chungcheongbuk-do and Hamgyeongbuk-do. The two provinces consisting of 21 counties, 56 prefectures and 1 secondary capital (Sogyeong) faced drastic change in the following Goryeo Period (936-1932).
Goryeo unified the Three Later Kingdoms in 936, but the new dynasty still had many years until it got its regional areas under the control of the central government. King Taejo, who founded the dynasty, and despite being the king, found his authority gravely limited as many of the regional areas were under the control of independent warlords who defied the rule of the central government.
It was during the reign of King Seongjong that the Goryeo Dynasty strengthened its royal authority and began to send administrators for effective rule over the entire territory. In 983, King Seongjong established central governmental organizations, divided the kingdom into 12 provinces (Mok), and began to send local administrators to impose direct, centralized rule. Before the introduction of the 12-Mok system, the dynasty's central government and the regions were largely connected by three officials, titled Geumyu, Jojang and Jeonunsa dispatched from the central government. The main duty of Geumyu and Jojang was the collection of taxes and tributary goods whereas that of Jeonunsa was the transportation of the collected taxes and tributary goods from the regions to the capital of Goryeo.
The 12 provinces of Goryeo were Gwangju, Yangju, Chungju, Cheongju, Gongju, Jinju, Sangju, Jeonju, Naju, Seungju, Hwangju and Haeju. The provinces were ruled by the governors dispatched from the central government. The governors’ main duties also included controlling the local powers.
The Goryeo rulers also had two special administrative units (Gye) for the northern border regions, Seobukgye ("Northwestern Region") and Dongbukgye ("Northeastern Region"), where they sent military commanders titled Jujinsa.
To sum, the administrative divisions of early Goryeo largely consisted of the 12 provinces (Mok), for which administration focused on civil affairs, and the two border regions (Gye), where defense and military affairs formed key administrative factors. Table 2 below shows a comparison of today's Gangwon-do under Goryeo's 12-Mok system and Silla's nine provinces (Ju) and five secondary capitals system (Sogyeong).
|Present regions||9 Ju´s 5 Sogyeong´s||12 Mok´s||Remarks|
|Gangwon-do (province)||Saakju||Extinct (Chuncheon)|
Table 2 shows that the 12 Provinces of Goryeo were made either by maintaining the existing strategic points or establishing new strongholds all across the southern part of the kingdom. The provinces in today's Hwanghae-do were all newly established. The early administrative divisions in Seobukgye (today's Pyeongan-do) and Dongbukgye (today's Gangwon-do), which included Sakju, Myeongju and Bugwon-gyeong, no longer existed, but no detailed records remain to explain the changes.
The reform of the administrative divisions made in 983, the 2nd year of King Seongjong's reign, reveals that it was largely related with the southern part of Goryeo as there was no significant change made regarding the two border regions in today's Gangwon-do and Pyeongan-do. Yeongju, the strategic outpost built to protect the northwestern border region against invasion by the Khitan forces was governed by Anbuk Daedohobusa ("Commander of the Great Regional Protection in Anbuk"). Meanwhile, other key military outposts, such as Sunju, Wiju, Eunju, Sukju and Jaju, were governed by Bangeosa ("Border Defense Officer"). Myeongju in the Northeastern Border Region was changed to Haseo-bu.
The dualistic administrative division system of Goryeo, marked by the 12 provinces (Mok) in the south and the two border regions in the north, suffered a drastic change in 995, the 14th year of King Seongjong's reign, as the dynasty adopted the Military Governor (Jeoldosa) system from Tang China and the Ten Provinces (Do) system. The change from the 12-Mok system focused on civil administration by the Jeoldosa system. Priority was given to military rule and led to the establishment of 12 Military Governor Offices in the 12 Provinces (Mok). Also there was the dispatch of 80 "Outer Officials" (Oegwan), including two Yusu, five Dohobusa, seven Dodallyeonsa, 11 Dallyeonsa, 15 Jasa, 21 Beongeosa and seven Jinjang to other administrative units.
To today's Gangwon-do area, the Goryeo Dynasty sent a total of seven Outer Officials and five Training Officers (Dallyeonsa) to Gyoju, Chunju, Dongju, Myeongju and Cheokju, and two Border Defense Officers (Bangeosa) to Joju (Goseong) and Yeonju (Sakju).
Such change eventually led to administrative reform in which the entire kingdom was divided into 10 provinces (Do): Gwannae-do, Jungwon-do, Hanam-do, Gangnam-do, Haeyang-do, Yeongdong-do, Yeongnam-do, Sannam-do, Sakbang-do, and Paeseo-do. The provinces were then subdivided into 128 counties (Ju), 449 prefectures (Hyeon) and 7 military outposts (Jin). It was Sakbang-do, consisting of seven counties and 62 prefectures, which occupied the area of the present Gangwon-do.
The introduction of the 10-Do system by the Goryeo Dynasty, however, couldn't keep the Outer Officials in the counties and prefectures from becoming the central players in regional administration. The new administrative division of the kingdom into 10 provinces, according to their geographical features, was intended to reform the indefinite and provisional divisions of early Goryeo. These provinces were controlled by Jeonunsa, involved sending an official from the central government to oversee the transportation of taxes. The political influence of the Outer Officials, including the 12 Military Governors (Jeoldosa), continued to remain strong. following the reform, leaving the new 10 provinces to fail in their role as the top regional administrative organizations controlling the counties and prefectures. The situation led the 10 Provinces not to the role of the kingdom's largest administrative divisions effectively linking the capital with the regional areas but to the much simpler roles of transporting taxes and policing. In sum, the 10-Do system helped the Goryeo Dynasty gradually move from the earlier 12-Mok system to more systematic administrative divisions. This contributed to the consolidation of its central government. Unfortunately, however, it never succeeded in fully replacing the earlier system by the new organizations.
The Jeoldosa-based administrative system adopted in 995 by King Seongjong came to face a major change in 1005, when King Mokjong (r. 997-1009) abolished the existing administrative units andpositions with the exception of: the 12 Military Governors (Jeoldosa) and the four Regional Protection Commands (Dohobu) in the south; and the Border Defense Officers (Bangeojinsa), Prefects (Hyeollyeong), and Outpost Commanders (Jinjang) in the northwestern border region. With this reform, the dynasty came to focus more on civil, rather than military, affairs. In 1012, the dynasty, under the King Hyeonjong's rule, replaced the Governor of the Eastern Capital (Donggyeong Yusu) witha Border Defense Officer (Bangeosa) and the 12 Military Governors with five Regional Protection Commands and 75 Defense-Police Officers (Anmusa). Then, in 1018, the Defense-Police Officers were abolished and the regional administrative system reorganized to consist of four Regional Protection Commands, eight Provinces (Mok), 56 County Heads (Jiju Gunsa), 28 Outpost Commanders and 20 Prefects. After the reformation, the defense-focused Jeoldosa system consisted of civil administrative divisions, such as Mok and Jiju Gunsa in the east, and defense-focused divisions, such as Bangeosa and Jinjang in the border region.
The reform made in the 9th year of King Hyeonjong's rule increased the number of Outer Officials to116 from 80 (in the 14th year of King Seongjong's rule,), contributing to the establishment of the Outer Officials system and consolidation of the central authority. One of the last major reformations inGoryeo's administrative divisions took place under the rule of King Hyeonjong by which the kingdom was divided into the Capital Area (Gyeonggi), Five Provinces (Do) and Two Border Regions (Gye). These large administrative units were then divided into four capitals (Gyeong), four Regional Protection Commands (Dohobu) and eight Subprovinces (Mok), which were, in turn, subdivided into 15 Counties (Bu), 129 Subcounties (Gun), 335 Prefactures (Hyeon) and 29 Military Outposts (Jin). The five provinces under the reformed system were Yanggwang-do, Gyeongsang-do, Jeolla-do, Gyoju-do and Seohae-do, while the two Border Regions were Donggye ("Eastern Border Region") and Bukgye ("Northern Border Region").
As for the current Gangwon-do, much of the Yeongdong area east of the Taebaek Mountains and the area below Jeongpyeong in Hamgyeongnam-do were under the jurisdiction of Donggye, while most of the Yeongseo area, excluding some parts in the south, were part of Gyoju-do. As for two of Goryeo's largest administrative divisions that would form today's Gangwon-do, Donggye consisted of one Dohobu, nine Gun, eight Hyeon, 10 Jin and 17 Subordinate Prefectures (Sokhyeon), while Gyoju-do consisted of three Gun and 25 Subordinate Prefectures. The central government of Goryeo, since its middle period, had continued to dispatch governors (Anchalsa) to the Five Provinces and military commanders (Byeongmasa) to the two border regions, thus maintaining the civil-military dual administrative system until the last phase of its period.